Deposition of matel to substrate.
3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing (AM), refers to processes used to synthesize a three-dimensional object in which successive layers of material are formed under computer control to create an object.Objects can be of almost any shape or geometry and are produced from digital model data 3D model or another electronic data source such as an Additive Manufacturing File (AMF) file.
Additive Manufacturing, Direct Energy Deposition, deposition modeling and industrial 3D printing - Benefits and Functional Principle .
Directed Energy Deposition (DED) covers a range of terminology: ‘Laser engineered net shaping, directed light fabrication, direct metal deposition, 3D laser cladding’
A4 or 5 axis arm with nozzle moves around a fixed object.
Material is deposited from the nozzle onto existing surfaces of the object.
Material is either provided in wire or powder form.
Material is melted using a laser, electron beam or plasma arc upon deposition.
Further material is added layer by layer and solidifies, creating or repairing new material features on the existing object.
Ability to control the grain structure to a high degree, which lends the process to repair work of high quality, functional parts
A balance is needed between surface quality and speed, although with repair applications, speed can often be sacrificed for a high accuracy and a pre- determined microstructure